The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in South Darfur State

Maki A, Abdalla H. S., Mustafa M.


Trypanosoma evansi infection is considered as most important disease of camel in the Sudan. The aim of this study was to investigate the T. evansi infection of dromedary camel, using the parasitological, serological and molecular tools. A two-year three seasons study of the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels (Camelus dromedarus) was conducted in Nyala area (South Darfur State). Jugular vein blood samples were randomly collected from 350 camels and examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smears (GSBS) for the presence of the trypanosomes, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test (CATT) and molecularly for detection of the T. evansi amino- acid sequence through PCR using T. brucei spp specific primers. Out of the 350 samples 37(10.6%) were positive by smears, and 126 (36%) were positive by CATT through anti-trypanosomal antibodies, while 140 (40%) were positive by PCR. The obtained results showed that PCR have higher sensitivity and specificity (90%), while CATT and smears gave less sensitivity 69% and 31% respectively. The prevalence was significantly greater in the rainy season than the dry season.

Full Text:



A/Majid, A. A. (2000). The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan. Annotated Bibliography (1905 – 2000). National Centre for Research, Sudan. pp. 123.

Aradaib, I. E. and Magid, A. A. (2006). A simple and rapid method for detection of T. evansi in dromedary camel using a nested Polymerase Chain Reaction. Kinetoplastid Biololgy and Diseases, 5:2.

Atarhouch, T.; Rami, M.; Bendahman, M. N. and Dakkak, A. (2003). Camel Trypanosomosis in Moracco 1: Results of a first epidemiological survey. Veterinary Parasitology, 111: 277-286.

Clausen, P. H.; Gebresel Assie, G.; Additchos, A.; Mehlilz, D. and Staak, C. (1998). Detection of trypanosomes in horses suspected of dourine in Ethiopia. Lokai. Journal of Experimental Research, 23(6):303-308.

Diall, O.; Bajyana, S. E.; Magnus, E.; Kouyate, B.; Diallo, B.; Van Meirvenne, N. and Hamers, R. (1994). Evaluation of a direct serologic card agglutination test for the diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics), 13(3): 793-800.

Godfrey, D.G. and Killick-Kendrick, R. (1962). Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 56: 14-19.

Gutierrez, C.; Corbera, J. A.; Morales, M. and Buscher, P. (2006). Trypanosomosis in goats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1081(1): 300-310.

Holland, W. G.; Claes, F.; My, L. N.; Thanh, N. J.; Tam, P. T.; Verloo, D.; Buscher, P.; Goddeeis, B. and Vercruysse, J. (2000). A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in

Maki et al.

experimentally infected water buffaloes. Veterinary Parasitology, 97:23-33.

Luckins A. G. (1992). Methods for diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in livestock. World Animal Review, 70(71): 15 – 20.

Magnus, E. (1988). Contribution a la standardisation du test d’immunofluorescence pour le serodiagnostic de la milady du sommeil a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Rev. Assoc. Belge Tech. Lab, 15: 321-343.

Mahmoud, M. and Gray, A. (1980). Trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885). Balbiani, 1888. A review of recent research. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 12(1): 35-47.

Masiga, R . C. and Nyang'ao, J. M. (2001). Identification of Trypanosome species from camel using Polymerase Chain Reaction and procyclic transformation test. Camel Practice and Research, 8:17-22.

Omanwar, S.; Rao, J. R.; Basagoudanavar, S. H.; Singh, R. K. and Butchaiah, G. (1999). Direct and sensitive detection of Trypanosoma evansi by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Acta Vet Hung., 47:351.

Paris, J.; Murray, M. and McOdimba, F. (1982). An evaluation of the sensitivity of current parasitological techniques for the diagnosis of bovine African trypanosomosis. Acta Trop., 39: 307-316.

Pathak, K.; Singh, Y.; Meirvenne, N. and Kapoor, M. (1997). Evaluation of various diagnostic techniques for Trypanosoma evansi infections in naturally infected camels, Veterinary Parasitology, 69(1): 49-54.

Raisinghan, P.M. and Lodha, K.R. (1986). Indian Journal of Animal Science, 56 (11): 1142-1143.

Sanger, F. (1981). Determination of nucleotide sequences in DNA. Bioscience Reports 1(1): 3-18.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.