الهجرات الداخلية والخارجية في السودان: مصادر المعلومات، الدوافع والآثار (1956-2015م)

عبد الحميد بله النور, أحمد حمد إبراهيم الفائق

Abstract


This study has dealt with internal and external migration in Sudan, its causes, and impacts during the period 1956-2015. Emphasis has been shed upon migration concepts, sources of data and information and evaluation. The paper has depended on the various population censuses, population registers, migration sample surveys, along with meteorological information to detect the environmental causes of migration. The study showed that limitations of migration concepts and definitions in the country which has, in turn, its impact on the quality of migration aspects. The paper also revealed that there are huge out-migration streams from rural areas and small towns to big towns and cities, as Greater Khartoum has proved to be the major focus of  in-migration to Khartoum State increasing from 14% in 1956 to 60% in 2008, and the majority of in-migrants were males. The paper equally, exhibited that the in-migrants to Khartoum State are predominantly from North Kordofan State (59%), followed by the Gezeria State (11.2), and South Kordofan (10.9%). Some of these major sending States experienced series of drought waves resulting in mass out-migration and emigration to abroad and reflected also on shortages in natural resources and the failure of the natural environment to meet population vital needs. This mass out-migration had its impact on the receiving areas, especially Khartoum States, where the basic infrastructure and social amenities have failed to cater for such mass in-migrations. This mass migration also has its impact on sex ratios, which resulted in lack of labour force in sending areas on both the agricultural and pastoral sectors. To mitigate the impacts of such migrations, the study has recommended the necessity for sustainable and balanced development between rural and urban areas.

Keywords


internal and external migration; population censuses; population registers;Sudan; sustainable development

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/sgj.v1i1.1453

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Sudan Geographical Journal          1858-7992