Cover Image

The effect of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum and Beauveria bassiana on the survival of mosquito larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Culex quinquefasciatus Say

Asmaa El Abas El Agali, El Amin El Rayah Mohammed, Abd El Wahab Hassan


Because of environmental considerations and the development of resistance in vectors, efforts had been directed to microbial control. Immature stages of mosquito are useful components of malaria control program. The entomopathogenic hyphomycetous fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum and Beauveria bassiana were selected  and tested against early (L1-2) and late (L3-4) stages of mosquito larvae Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Two concentrations of each fungual spores were used to perform the laboratory bioassays and time to death was determined for each mosquito species.

 Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum and Beauveria bassiana caused high mortality in An. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus. However, B. bassiana was less effective compared to M. anisopliae var acridum.

Both An. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible to the two fungi concentrations at early stage. On the other hand, the older one were less susceptible.

This research showed the potentiality of the two fungal species against mosquitoes in the larval stage, and the mortality percentage depends on fungus species itself and larval stage targeted. The increase in  fungus concentration did not showed a proportional increase in mortality, may be due to the spores clumped.


Moequito biocontrol;Entomopathogenic Fungi;Metarhizium anisopliae;Beauveria bassiana

Full Text:



Alves, S. B., Alves, L. E. A., Lopes, R. B., Pereira, R. M., Vieira, S. A., Potential of some Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Dipt., Culicidae). J Appl Entomol. 126: 504-509 (2002).

Appersonl, C. S., Federic, B. A., Tarver, F. R., Stewart, W., William, S., Biotic and A biotic Parameters Associated with an Epizootic of Coelomomyces punctatus in a larval population of the Mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J Invertebr Pathol 60: 219-228 (1992).

Bancroft, J. D., Cook, H. C., Manual of histological techniques. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh London (1984).

Benedict, M. Q., Methods in Anopheles research Atlanta, USA: Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center (2007).

Boucias, D. R. , Pendland, J. C. and Latge, J. P., Nonspecific factors involved in attachment of entomopathogenic Deuteromycetes to host insect cuticle. Appl and Environ Microbiol 54: 1795-1805 (1988).

Bukhari, T., Middelman, A., Koenraadt, J. M., Takken, W., Knols, B. G. J., Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. Malaria Journal 9: 22 (2010).

Butt, T. M., Jackson, C. W. and Magan, N., Fungi as biocontrol agents. CABI. Publishing (2001).

Charnley, A. K., Mechanism of fungal pathogenesis in insects. In: The Biotechnology of fungi for improving plant growth. Eds. Whipps, J. M. and Lumsden, R. D. : Cambridge University, London Pp. 85-125(1989).

Clarkson, J. M. and charnley, A. K., New insights into the mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in insects. Trends in Microbiol 4:197-203(1996).

Crisan, E. V.,Mechanism responsible for release of toxin by Metarhizium spores in mosquito larva. J Invertebr Pathol 17: 260-264 (1971).

De Hoog, G.S., Guarro, J., Gene, J., Figueras, M.J., Atlas of clinical fungi Utrech: Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures, 2 (2000).

Gomez, K. A., Gomez, A. A., Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons (1984).

Hegedus, D. D. and Khachatourians, G. G., The impact of biotechnology on hyphomycetous fungal insect biocontrol agents. Biotech Adv 13: 455-490 (1995).

Killeen, G. F., Fillinger, U., and Knols, B. G. J., Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioral responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage, Malaria Journal 1: 1-7 (2002).

Lacey, C. M., Lacey, L. M. and Robert, D. R., Route of invation and histopathology of Metarhizium anisopliae in Culex quinquefasciatus. J Invertebr Pathol 52:108-118 (1988).

Lord, J. C. and Fukuda, T., A leptolegnia (Saprolegniales) pathogenic for mosquito larvae. J Invertebr Pathol 55: 130-132 (1990).

Mboera, L. E. G., Chemical ecology of the behavior of the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. PhD. Thesis, Wageningen University (1999).

Miranpuri, G. S. and Khachatourians, G. G., Infection site of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Entomol Exp Appl 59: 19-27 (1991).

Mulla, M. S., Thavara, U., Tawatsin, A., Chomposir, J., Su, T., Emergence of resistance and resistance management in field population of tropical Culex quinquefasiatus to the microbial control agent Bacillus sphaericus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 19: 39-46 (2003).

Narayana, K., Insect defiance: Its impact on microbial control of insect pests Current science 86: 800-814 (2004).

Lord, J. C., From Metchnikoff to Monsanto and beyond: The path of microbial control. J. Invertebr Pathol., 89: 19-29 (2005).

Ramoska, W. A., An examination of the long-term epizootic potential of various artificially introduced mosquito larval pathogens. Mosq News 24: 603-607 (1982).

Roberts, D. W., Fungal infections of mosquitoes. In: Aubin A, Belloncik, S., Bourassa, J. P., La Coursiere, E., Pellissier, M., editors. Mosq Control Pp: 143-193 (1974).

Sandhu, S. S., Rajak, R. C., Sharma, M., Bioactivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae as pathogens of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Aedes aegypti: Effect of instar, dosage and time. Indian J. Microbiol. 33: 191-194 (1993).

Scholte, E. J., Takken, W. and Knols, B. G. J., Pathogenicity of five African entomopthogenic fungi against Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceeding of the Experimental and Appl Entomol of the Netherlands EntomolSociety 14: 25-29 (2003 a).

Scholte, E. J., Knols, B. G. J., Samson, R. A. and Takken, W., Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review J Insect Sci 4: 19(2004 a).

St. Leger, R. J., Charnley, A. K. and Cooper, R. M., Cuticle-degrading enzymes of entomopathogenic fungi: mechanisms of interaction between pathogen enzymes and insect cuticle. J Invertebr Pathol 47: 295-302(1986).

St. Leger, R. J., Bidochka, M. J. and Staples, R. C., Preparation events during infection of host cuticle by Metarhizium anisopliae. J Invertebr Pathol 58: 168-179(1991).

Sun, J., Fuxa, J. R., Henderson, G. (2002). Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana On Coptermes formosanus and in vitro., J Invertebr Pathol 81: 78-85 (2002).

Zacharuk, R. Y., In pathology of invertebrate microbial diseases, Davidson, E.w., ed. Allanhed, Osmum and Co. (Totowa, USA) Pp: 367-402. Fungal disease of terrestrial insects (1981).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Sudan Journal of Science

Sud. J. Sci.                                        ISSN: 1858-5795